Acknowledgements There are so very many to thank as the ideas that inform this book took shape over the past decade and a half. When I first waded into intersections of education and sound, I was perhaps most interested in how music, both as metaphor and lived practices, might serve as a critically creative tool for considering educational interactions.
More specifically, I was thinking about forms and possibilities for improvisation. This was also my experience in discovering the work of Ted T. Aoki, a scholar whose attentions to the complex interrelations between curriculum, sound, and wonder paved the way for my own.
A remarkable ultemeege.tk question of the Holocaust and its representation is important to our work in ultemeege.tkng to treat the Holocaust as. Curriculum and the Holocaust: Competing Sites of Memory and Representation - CRC Press Book.
In my second year as a doctoral student, I gained an unexpected ally in a person who became a sound-touchstone in my life until his untimely death, Greg Dimitriadis. Their collective and individual input has strengthened and deepened this book in ways that would have been impossible without their time, effort, and care.
Fischel, Jack. Fall, Memories of My Life in a Polish Village, Options Current Position. Current Grant. Twenty of the biggest scholars of the time probe the moral, epistemological, and aesthetic limits of an account or portrayal of the Holocaust. The Catholic Church and the Holocaust,
Here, Boni Wozolek gets another shout out for lending her considerable critical understandings to earlier drafts of chapters on method and songwriting, as does Reagan Mitchell for reading and then pressing at my thoughts at the intersection of sound, education, and philosophy. Venkataraman, and John B. Williams—who taught me not only how to be a better player but also how to listen.
Thank you to John Bennett, Karen Grindall, Pat Marxen, Dolores Whaley, and all the first, fifth, seventh, and eighth grade students whose work with me in the Listening to the Sounds of Science Project in many ways triggered and drove my deepening understandings of what I now call sound curriculum.
Thank you to the anonymous reviewers whose thoughtful suggestions and positive recommendations made this work a possibility. Thank you to Naomi Silverman for your patience as I strove to get this book in publishable shape and to the rest of the team at Routledge who helped turn this manuscript into a book. Thank you to Dena and Kate Gershon for your love and support, this is what I was working on all that time. As I argue below, understanding knowledge in, as, and through sound maintains current curricular ways of knowing while opening new doors for conceptualizing and interpreting curriculum.
Listening brings to the fore not only the importance of hearing and the senses in schooling, but also the central nature of all sounds in educational contexts. Because my goal here is to articulate what might be gained through sonic inquiries and representations of educational contexts, this discussion is not intended to be an exhaustive review of either how sound inquiry is approached across disciplines or the myriad ways in which such uses might be applied to curriculum and related fields of study.
Rather, my purpose here is twofold, to provide some criteria for recognizing and conceptualizing sound curriculum as it currently exists in the field and to present how the further conceptualization of sound curricular possibilities can contribute to advancement in the field of curriculum studies. After a brief discussion of framing that describes this trajectory, my argument here is comprised of three central components. It begins with an act of recognition, framing previously disparate examinations of music, sound, and meaning in curriculum studies as sound curriculum.
I then draw from the burgeoning field of sound studies in order to complicate the sound curricular understandings presented in the first section, a breaking of the frame to note its boundaries. This then leads to questioning the meaning and limitations of the verb to frame. A final brief conclusion suggests some possible directions for sound curriculum and how it might contribute to the complicated conversations that are contemporary curriculum studies. When rewriting this piece so that it served as the introduction to this book, I elected to keep this discussion of Butler and framing for the following reasons.
And yet, Butler, whose conceptualization of frames and framing encapsulates and pushes past many previous constructions in ways that are, as noted here, more ethical, fluid, and complex, is still limited by the ocular baggage of her argument. However, a central question remains: What is sound curriculum? One answer was provided at the end of the preface, the wide variety of attention to the sonic in educational scholarship and the resonances within, between, and outside of those understandings. A third possible definition, and one that in many ways encapsulates the previous two, is sound ways of beingknowingdoing.
And, oxymoronically, not providing some sort of definition feels at once irresponsible to a project about something as central to experience as the sonic and runs the risk of being misunderstood or misconstrued. Given that this conundrum lies at the base of many attempts to graphically express the sonic e. For Butler, these frames derive their power as they move through successive iterations of framing and reframing towards intents and purposes different than those conceptualized by the original frame rs.
While such framing often serves to propagate dominant norms and values, it is in their reframing that such ideas and ideals can be subverted or interrupted. In short, frames demarcate how life is recognizable and what can be valued, structures that gain their power and meaning as they break from themselves. As a consequence, the frames that, in effect, decide which lives will be recognizable as lives and which will not, must circulate in order to establish their hegemony. This circulation brings out or, rather is the iterable structure of the frame.
Butler, , p. He argues that play is universally understood and exists as a space within clear boundaries between the imaginary and reality, lines that clearly indicate what is play and what is not, similar to the way a frame delineates the artwork it contains from the non-art outside its boundaries. Both Vygotsky and Piaget similarly envisioned play as a universally applicable, non-serious space for children to try on roles, interactions, and ideas as well as a space to explore the imaginary.
Scholarship critical of universal claims of play often note that there are ethical implications in this kind of static, universal framing—what one person in a given interaction considers play can be threatening to another player for example, Houseman, ; Lindquist, This can be seen in the duality of her insistence that non-visual framings are as important as visual framing texted, seen. First, there is the notion of a frame, a visual metaphor. How does a frame smell? Or, more germane to the discussion in this chapter, what does a frame sound like? Not only has this been demonstrated not to be the case in both Western and non-Western constructions of sense-making e.
Finally, when placed in combination, such understandings appear to note a rather Western construction of meaning that retains a Cartesian separation between the senses and their limitation to five discreet senses, an understanding that often serves to blur embodied knowing inasmuch as it helps explicate sensory knowledge and expressions of being Howes, ; Stoller, Rather, I seek to enunciate these differences as I travel through them for the remainder of this chapter. First using a static notion of framing to underscore the presence of sound curriculum in the field, then breaking that frame in order to expand the notion of sound curriculum beyond its expression as talk and music, and then finally suggesting the possible merits of further exploration of sound curriculum that exceeds notions of framing as an apt metaphor for sound understandings.
Specifically, sound curriculum is most often evident as talk and, in decreasing frequency, as music and sound. Sound Curriculum, Organized and Texted In curriculum studies, sound is nearly always organized and texted.
There is a continuing debate over the definitions of how the organization of sounds is most clearly enunciated and the ramifications of those definitional categorizations. This tendency is due in no small part to the ways in which curriculum is often conceptualized. Practically, there are difficulties in representing the kinaesthetic and aural aspects of dance and music as text, be they virtual or physical. However, conversely, there is an emphasis on curriculum-as-text e.
This allows ideas and actions to be deconstructed and otherwise critically examined the same way in which one approaches literal texts, a possibility as common in aesthetic and artistic curriculum as it is in the rest of the field. Morris writes eloquently of the interwoven layers of her musical past, curriculum present and future, and the modes that serve as the structures she negotiates as she makes explicit the notes she sounds through her improvising lines of connectivity.
She does so by writing about music as curriculum as text: music as Western art music and constructions of musicianship within a comparatively static Western art music context. This combination invokes structuralist understandings of music that can be understood as antithetical to the rich narrative she weaves throughout the piece and the kinds of fluid postmodern constructions of meaning she evokes in her work e.
As with all the points central to my argument throughout this chapter, I am not arguing against constructing ideas and interactions as Text, as this allows the scholarly space for many powerful literary tools that can make oft-hidden habits of mind and practice explicit for examination and critique e. Yet talk is a key facet in understanding curriculum. This is not only the case in interpretive studies of educational contexts e.
However, it is the rare instance when talk is conceptualized as a kind of organized sound rather than as a mode of communication. In those relatively rare instances when talk in educative contexts is considered as sound, it is most often done so to illustrate the musical nature of that talk e. Music and Curriculum More common in curriculum studies are discussions of music as a springboard for curricular explorations and discussions of music as a curricular tool or cultural bridge.
Cooper frames her entire book around two musical phrases: soprano obligato and tutti ad libitum. Obligato [Obbligato] is a line of music that is to be played as written, an integral, significant, and essential aspect of the score. As most know, soprano is one of the two categories for female voices in Western art music and tutti means as a group, together, all, pulling out all the stops on the organ.
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