T h e best non-technical account is that of Bown O n the genus Arum, the classic work is Lords and Ladies Prime, , which is essential reading for anyone wanting to understand the pollination strategy employed by many mono- ecious aroid taxa. The family Araceae is defined on the character of the inflores- cence: small flowers borne on a fleshy axis the spadix subtended by a modified leaf the spathe. There is much variation on this theme. In some genera the spathe is very conspicuous and brilliantly coloured e.
Lysichiton, many Anthurium species while in others the spathe is small and leaf-like e. In the genus Orontium the spathe is so reduced that it appears to be absent, while in the case of Gymnostachys, a peculiar genus restricted to eastern Australia, debate continues as to whether a spathe is in fact present at all. T h e behaviour of the spathe varies from genus to genus. In some e. Cvptocoryne and Arisarum the spathe completely encloses the spadix, while in others it reflexes to leave the spadix clearly visible e.
In some genera the spathe is shed as soon as the inflorescence reaches anthesis, either falling completely e. T h e spathe ranges in size and form from 5 mm long and simple in Homalomena humilis to a fluted and pleated vase-shaped structure 1 m wide and 1. T h e sex of the individual flowers and their arrangement on the spadix are among the characters used to define taxonomic groups. Depending on the genus the spadix may bear either unisexual or bisexual flowers.
If bearing bisexual flowers these arc uniformly zyxwvu arranged over the spadix. Bisexual flowers are often subtended by reduced tepals termed a perigon. Ifunisexual, the flowers are usually arranged with the females at the base of the spadix and the males above, with the zones occasionally separated by a further zone of sterile flowers; the spadix is occasionally terminated by a sterile appendix. In the genus Arisaema individual inflorescences are usually either male or female and the sex of the inflorescence is governed by the age of the plant, its health and the type ofconditions in which it is growing.
Young plants, or mature plants in poor condition or growing in a less than ideal habitat, will produce male inflorescences, while mature plants in good condition growing in an optimum habitat will produce female inflorescences. T h e ability to alter the sex of the inflorescence in this way is termed paradioecy. Unisexual flowers ofaroids are almost without exception naked, that is, lacking a perigon. T h e family is vegetatively diverse with stem-tubers, climbers, hemi-epiphytes, true epiphytes, emergent and free-floating aquatics all represented.
Among the climbing species various types of climbing method may be observed; there are the shingle climbers in which the short-petioled leaves overlap in the manner of roof tiles e.
Scindapsuspictus , huge trunk climbers e. Scindapsus latzfolius , and litter-basket climbers displaying differentiation of stem function Scindapsus beccarii. I n the last named the young plant is a straggling climber attached by short roots to a tree trunk and bearing small, scattered leaves. When the plant has reached a certain age and zyxw height the growth alters to form a congested litter-basket comprised of large, overlapping leaves.
T h e litter-basket produces several inflorescences and then sends out another straggling growth which continues climbing for a few metres before the process is repeated. Hapaline brownii and Schismatoglottis tecturata. Tuberous or cormous-stemmed aroids are frequent, especially in genera occur- ring in habitats subjected to a seasonal climate. T h e primarily Old World tropical Amorphophallus is especially noteworthy because of the enormous tubers produced by certain species.
The largest species, A. Some aroids, termed rheophytes, are adapted to streamside habitats where there exists the risk of flash floods following tropical rains. Rheophtyic aroids are especially abundant on the island of Borneo e. Bucephalandra, Aridarum, Hottarum.
Many aroids are notable for the physical and chemical means they employ to protect themselves from grazing. T h e stems and leaves contain copious raphides, calcium oxalate crystals, that become embedded in the soft tissue o f the mouth when the plant is chewed. The crystals often act as vectors for toxic or irritating chemicals, helping to inject them and causing severe discomfort. The main food product is the corm , which is high in starch ; leaves and flowers also find culinary use.
List of foliage plant diseases Araceae. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Arecaceae or Araliaceae. Main article: List of Araceae genera. Jr Magnolia Press. The living and dried collections include a large percentage of Croat's more than 80, personal collections". Croat, Thomas B Retrieved 17 January University of Hawaii.
Iowa State University. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 30 December Aroids: plants of the Arum family.
Timber Press. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo Ohio State University. Aquarium Fish International. Library of Congress.
Duane Clinical Toxicology. Colocasia Xanthosoma". The Crop Trust.
PDF | On Jan 1, , Simon J. Mayo and others published The Genera of Araceae. PDF | On Jan 1, , P. B. Tomlinson and others published The Genera of Araceae.
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Araceae Juss. Pothoideae Engler Monsteroideae Engler