This has been found to be a function of the atomic number of the target atom and photon energy. A crude approximation, for photon energies above the highest atomic binding energy, which is given by: . Here Z is atomic number and n is a number which varies between 4 and 5. At lower photon energies a characteristic structure with edges appears, K edge, L edges, M edges, etc.
The obvious interpretation follows that the photoelectric effect rapidly decreases in significance, in the gamma-ray region of the spectrum, with increasing photon energy, and that photoelectric effect increases steeply with atomic number. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Light—matter interaction Low-energy phenomena: Photoelectric effect Mid-energy phenomena: Thomson scattering Compton scattering High-energy phenomena: Pair production v t e. Main article: Photomultiplier. Renewable energy portal. Annalen der Physik. Bibcode : AnP Physical Review. Bibcode : PhRv Physics Letters A. Bibcode : PhLA..
Hodder Education. Quantum Mechanics for Applied Physics and Engineering. Courier Dover Publications. Schaum's Outline of Modern Physics 2nd ed. Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications. Bibcode : Natur Instruments of Science: An Historical Encyclopedia. For copper , platinum , lead , iron , cadmium , carbon , and mercury the effects with ordinary light are too small to be measurable. The order of the metals for this effect is the same as in Volta's series for contact-electricity, the most electropositive metals giving the largest photo-electric effect.
Wiley Online Library. Comptes Rendus. CVI : Reprinted in Stoletow, M.
Philosophical Magazine. Series 5. Abstract in Beibl. CVII : CVIII : Journal of the Russian Physico-chemical Society in Russian.
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Watchmaker Publishing. Retrieved 9 July MIT Press. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved Le Radium. Bibcode : Natur.. Series I. Bibcode : PhRvI.. Gethyn in Huber, Martin C. Cambridge Physics for the IB Diploma revised ed. Cambridge University Press. Bibcode : Sci Princeton University Press.
Arizona State University. The Atomic Nucleus. Malabar, Fla. Bibcode : abgs. Radiation Detection and Measurement. New York: Wiley. Photovoltaics Photoelectric effect Solar insolation Solar constant Solar cell efficiency Quantum efficiency Nominal power Watt-peak Thin-film solar cell Multi-junction solar cell Third-generation photovoltaic cell Solar cell research Thermophotovoltaic Thermodynamic efficiency limit Sun-free photovoltaics Polarizing organic photovoltaics. List of semiconductor materials Crystalline silicon c-Si Polycrystalline silicon multi-Si Monocrystalline silicon mono-Si Cadmium telluride Copper indium gallium selenide Amorphous silicon a-Si.
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PV power station Grid-connected photovoltaic power system List of photovoltaic power stations. By country List of countries by photovoltaics production. The yield is seen to be low to reduce back current excited by reflected light but the threshold wavelength is preferably long infra-red corresponding to a low work function, in contrast to the high yield of emitter 10 curve A. The silver supporting layers of collector electrodes '18 are made sufficiently thick to limit oxidation of the silver to the cesium layer interfaces, thereby providing highly reflecting surfaces at the interfaces between the silver and the transparent cover plate 4.
In this way the collector electrode structure is made relatively insensitive, photoemission-wise, to incident light passing through cover plate 4, since, first, this top surface is an efficient reflector substantially preventing the transmission of light to the photosensitive surface and, at the same time, minimizing heating of the photosensitive surface so as to prevent thermionic emission; second, the silver supporting layer has a high work function and is therefore a photoemitter only in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum; and third, little light can be transmitted through the thickness of the supporting layer to the low work function collector surface layer.
Transparent cover plate 4 should be made of a material having a good vacuum characteristic which is capable of transmitting radiation of short wavelengths. For example, lime glass may be used for cover plate 4 and other parts of enclosure 2 but this glass does not transmit wavelengths below approximately angstroms.
Since oxidized cadmium is responsive only to radiation of wavelength less than about angstroms, quartz should be used for cover plate 4 since it transmits radiation wavelengths down to approximately angstroms and therefore an increased output current is obtained. When quartz is used for cover plate 4 in conjunction with a glass such as Pyrex for enclosure 2', it will, of course, be necessary to employ a graded seal between the quartz and Pyrex in a manner well known in the art.
Enclosure 2 may also be fabricated from metal, giving due consideration to the expansion coefficients of the cover plate material and of the metal of the enclosure. In order to minimize emission by collector surface 12 when an all glass enclosure is used as shown , the exterior surfaces of enclosure 2 and side wall 6 are covered with an opaque coating 7.
Interconnection between collector electrode substrates 18 may be provided by means of conductive strips 20 which may be narrow, light-transmitting bands of silver as shown, or thick, broader bands covered, as above, with low work function material to provide added collector surface. Connection between collector electrode substrates 18 and the exterior of the device is made by means of connecting lead 22 sealed through glass wall 6 and connected on the interior thereof to the interconnected collector structure in a manner well known in the art.
In operation, light incident upon transparent cover plate 4 is transmitted through the portions thereof which are not covered by the collector structure to strike upon photoemissive surface 10 which emits photoelectrons. If transparent cover plate 4 is made of quartz, photoelectrons are ejected from cadmium-oxide surface 10 by light of all wavelengths in the range between approximately angstroms, the wavelength at which quartz transmission cuts off, and approximately angstroms, the long wavelength limit of photoemission by cadmium.
The cesium-oxide-silver collector surface is also sensitive to radiation of wavelenths as long as about angstroms, since it has a lower work function but, due to the shielding action of the higher work function silver substrate on which it is formed, it is screened from direct exposure to the radiation and is exposed only to light reflected from the inner surfaces of the structure. Collector electrode surfaces 12 therefore emit few photoelectrons in comparison to the number emitted by photoemissive surface In addition, when the photoemissive cathode surface is made of cadmium-oxide and the collector electrode surfaces are of cesiated silver-oxide, as in the illustrative embodiment, the contact potential difference between these materials produces an effective difference of potential between their respective cathode and collector electrode surfaces which accelerates the photoemitted electrons from the cathode surface.
The initial kinetic energies of the electrons are thus increased by the difference in contact potential of about 1. Since the number of photoelectrons emitted by cadmium photoemissive surface 10 is much greater than the number of photoelectrons emitted by cesium collector surface 12, the result is a net gain in negative charge by collector electrode The resultant difference of potential between emitter and collector surfaces may be applied to a useful load by means of connecting leads 16 and A wide variety of emitter and collector surface combinations may be used in the structure of FIG.
It will be apparent however, that the difference of contact potential aids the output only when the work function of the emitter surface is maintained higher than that of the collector surface as in the above described embodiment of the invention. In addition, the emitter surface should have as high a yield and as low a work function as possible so as to utilize the longer wavelengths ordinarily available in solar radiation and thereby increase output current.